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• The 2006 Christian Reformed Synod has given paedocommunion a green light - becoming the first large evangelical Reformed body in North America to do so.

The Case for Covenant Communion, edited by Gregg Strawbridge and including among its contributors Rob Rayburn, Douglas Wilson, James Jordan, Tim Gallant, and others, is now available from Athanasius Press.


Disclaimer: this bibliography aims at providing a reasonably comprehensive view of arguments on both sides of the paedocommunion question. Inclusion here does not indicate full agreement with every line of argument or all presuppositions of the respective writers on the "pro" side; nor does it imply repudiation of every point made by the "con" side.

In addition to the articles for and against (immediately below), this page also links some related articles dealing with matters which are connected to the paedocommunion issue, but do not necessarily argue for it directly.

Articles Pro & Con

The "Yes" Vote

Karl Barwin, "Infant Communion" (Barwin is a bishop in the Evangelical Catholic denomination - a broadly Lutheran communion.)

Rich Bingham, "Children at the Lord's Supper"

Brouwer, Kamp, Lunshof, Polman: Committee to Study Clarification of Public Profession of Faith for Covenant Children, "Report B" to Synod 1995 (CRC) (Note: This report is not by itself; it is to be found approximately halfway down this long web page.)

Calvin Theological Seminary Forum: Children at the Lord's Supper (theme issue).

Rev Fr Patrick S. Fodor, "Should Baptized Infants Be Communed?"

Tim Gallant, "Brief Theses on Communion and Covenant Children"

Tim Gallant, "Communion, Corinthians, and Covenant Children"
[MP3 format download.  This speech is also available on the 2002 Christ Church Ministerial Conference MP3 CD-Rom.  Order from]

Tim Gallant, "Discerning the Body: 1 Corinthians 11:29 & Paedocommunion"

Tim Gallant, "Examination and Remembrance"

Tim Gallant, "Paedocommunion & the Church Fathers: A Catena of Quotations"

Gary V. Gehlbach, "The Discontinuance of the Practice of Communing Infants in the Western Church" (click on the "Papers" link)

Syd Hielema, "A Precious Feast, A Tangled Web: A Case for Welcoming Children at the Table"

Mark Horne, "A Brief Response to Rev. Richard Bacon's Opposition to Paedocommunion"

Mark Horne, "Is Paedocommunion Really a Bad Idea?" (Response to Gregory Johnson)

Mark Horne, "John Calvin and Paedocommunion"

Mark Horne, "Passover, Paedocommunion, and Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry"

Mark Horne, "A Response to Rev. Bacon's Argument that Manna was not a Sacrament"

Mark Horne, "You and Your Son & Daughter:  Christ's Communion with Young Children"

James Jordan, "Theses on Paedocommunion"

Tommy Lee, "Appendix:  The Theology of Paedocommunion"

Tommy Lee, "The History of Paedocommunion:  From the Early Church Until 1500"

Peter J. Leithart, "Daddy, Why was I Excommunicated?"

Rich Lusk, "For the Children's Sake"

R. Heath McClure, "A Family Meal: Paedocommunion & the Analogy of Life"

Robert Rayburn, "PCA Minority Report on Paedocommunion" (This document contains both Majority and Minority Reports; pdf.)

Gregg Strawbridge, "Eucharist Participants in the Early Centuries: Biblical and Historical Evidence for Paedocommunion"

Ray Sutton, "Presuppositions of Paedocommunion"

Erik Wait, "The Covenant and Communion"

Steve Wilkins, "The Lord's Supper and Our Children"

G. I. Williamson et al, "OPC Majority Report"

Scott M. Marincic, "Truly Worthy & Well-Prepared"

The "No" Vote"

Richard Bacon, "What Mean Ye?"

David A. Bass, "Paedocommunion:  A Return to or Departure from Biblical Practice?"

Charles W. Bradley, "Pastoral Perspective on Paedo-Communion"

Buursma, Deppe, De Vries, Hettinger:  Committee to Study Clarification of Public Profession of Faith for Covenant Children, Report A to Synod 1995 (CRC) (Note: This report is not by itself; it is to be found approximately one-third of the way down this long web page.)

Leonard Coppes, "Consideration of the Paedocommunion Position:  'The Flesh Profits Nothing'"

Leonard Coppes, "OPC Minority Report (#1)"

Dr. K. Deddens, "May Children Partake of the Lord's Supper?"

Gary S. Flye, "Is Communion for Children?  A Defense of Puritan Communion"

Grover Gunn, "A Letter on Paedocommunion"

Gregory Johnson, "Why Paedocommunion is a Bad Idea:  Expanding a Blessing or Bringing Down a Curse?"

Francis Nigel Lee, "Paedocommunionism Versus Protestantism: How Trendy Theologizers Have Retreated from the Reformation (A Short History of the Modern Quasi-Protestant Paedocommunion Novelty)"

Francis Nigel Lee, "Summary Against Paidocommunion"

Michael LeFebvre, "Communion: Who Participates?"

Dr Peter A Lillback, "OPC Minority Report (#2)"

Lutheran Church Missouri Synod Commission on Theology & Church Relations: Response to "Truly Worthy & Well Prepared" [pdf]

PCA Ad-Interim Committee, "Report of the Ad-Interim Committee to Study the Question of Paedocommunion" (This document contains both Majority and Minority Reports; pdf.)

Dr Joseph Pipa, EPC 2006 Presbytery Conference lecture (mp3 audio).

RCUS Position Papers, Committee to Investigate the Situation at Westminster Seminary in Regard to Infant Communion (also available in PDF).

Rev. Brian M. Schwertley, Paedocommunion: A Biblical Examination

Matthew Winzer, "In Meam Commemorationem, or, The Reformed Practice of Discriminate Communion"

Matthew Winzer, "The True History of Paedo-Communion" (Our link is dead. Please let us know if you find this article.)

Related Articles

Jonathan Barlow, "The Theology of the 1986 PCA Majority Report: Review & Critique"

Tim Gallant, "Paedocommunion & the Three Forms of Unity"
[updated Jan. 9, 2003]

Albert Helder, J. Barry Koops et al, 1988 CRC Committee Reports on Children at the Lord's Supper

Mark Horne, "Children at the Table"

James Jordan, "A Letter on Paedocommunion"

James Jordan, "The Love Feast"

Rich Lusk, "Baptismal Efficacy and the Reformed Tradition"

Other Resources

"How Early Is Too Early?" (audio/video series; Immanuel Presbyterian Church [CREC], Clinton, MS)

"Children At the Table?" (audio; contra-paedocommunion interview of Cornelis Venema on Covenant Radio; note the response by Tim Gallant available on this site.)

"Children At the Table: Toward a Guiding Principle for Biblically Faithful Celebrations of the Lord's Supper" (PDF; a report by the Faith Formation Committee of the Christian Reformed Church.)